Heliaeschna trinervulata Fraser, 1955
Pale Duskhawker


  • scientific: H. ukerewensis Pinhey, 1961

Type locality: Entebbe, Uganda


Male is similar to H. ugandica (and possibly synonymous) by (a) dark metapleural and humeral bands on thorax absent; (b) wing bases usually clear; (c) anal triangle of 3 cells; (d) cerci without basal thickening; (e) widest point of blade of cerci at about mid-length of blade; (f) epiproct 45-55% length of cerci. However, differs by (1) relatively smaller size, Hw 35-38 mm rather than 38-46 mm; (2) dorsum of frons pale, at most with distinct dark cross-bar, rather than frons being completely dark; (3) 15-19 rather than 20-32 Ax in Fw; (4) anal loop of 5-7 rather than 7-14 cells; (5) cerci narrow rather than wide, blade about 2.5x as wide as stalk. [Adapted from Dijkstra & Clausnitzer 2014]

Habitat description

Not known, but probably standing and often temporary waters shaded by forest. Probably often with coarse detritus and a soft (like muddy) bottom. From 400 to 600 m above sea level, but possibly up to 1900.


confirmed: Democratic Republic of the Congo; Malawi; Tanzania; Uganda; Zambia; NOT confirmed: Cameroon

Appendages (dorsal view)

Map citation: Clausnitzer, V., K.-D.B. Dijkstra, R. Koch, J.-P. Boudot, W.R.T. Darwall, J. Kipping, B. Samraoui, M.J. Samways, J.P. Simaika & F. Suhling, 2012. Focus on African Freshwaters: hotspots of dragonfly diversity and conservation concern. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 10: 129-134.


  • Fraser, F.C. (1955). Odonata. Exploration Parc National Upemba. Mission G F de Witte, 38, 1-34. [PDF file]
  • Pinhey, E.C.G. (1961). Dragonflies (Odonata) of Central Africa. Occasional Papers Rhodes-Livingstone Museum, 14, 1-97. [PDF file]
  • Pinhey, E.C.G. (1966). Check-list of dragonflies (Odonata) from Malawi, with description of a new Teinobasis Kirby. Arnoldia, 2, 1-24. [PDF file]

Citation: Dijkstra, K.-D.B (editor). African Dragonflies and Damselflies Online. http://addo.adu.org.za/ [2024-04-22].